Ever since the days of the Roman Empire and ancient Greece, a beautiful body with well-developed muscles enjoyed special attention among sculptors and painters. The cult of physical perfection and a beautiful body was already supported by the well-known weight training exercises to strengthen physical strength and muscles.
Since then, a lot of evidence has been preserved, and not only myths and legends pointing to the cult of a healthy body, confirmed by numerous archaeological finds and historical facts. On objects of art, such as statues, vases, murals of temple buildings, you can see images where people exercise with shells, which in our time have become dumbbells and barbells. They were called "altera" and became the prototypes of modern aggravating shells. These shells were used not only for building muscle mass, but also for the purpose of healing and correcting defects in the development of the spine, forming a beautiful posture and improving overall health.
Many apologists for athleticism believe that even in those ancient times the foundations of modern training with aggravating shells were laid. For example, there are books that provide examples of training exercises performed by Milon Krotonsky (VI century BC), a wrestler who won first places at the Olympic Games. There is a legend that, as a training session, this wrestler shouldered a young bull and carried it around the arena of the stadium, while the distance sometimes amounted to more than 180 meters, and he did it daily. At the same time, the load increased daily with the growth of the bull, thereby increasing the strength and endurance of Milon. When this bull matured, Milon Krotonsky won the title of the strongest in Greece.
This story is more a myth than reality, since the heroes, the winners of the Olympic Games, became the subject of heroization, they were elevated to the rank of mythical heroes and conquerors according to legend. For exaltation, legends and myths were composed, where reality was transformed into fabulous fiction. Milon Krotovsky was one of the first heroes of that time, almost at the level of Hercules. He owns six Olympic victories. As a young man, he became the winner of the Games in 540 BC. e. He owns a myriad of victories, including nine at the Isthmian Games and seven at Delphi at the Pythian Games. The historian Pausanias (3rd century BC) claimed that Milon himself managed to bring his own statue to Altius. And the historian Philarch, who lived at the same time, described the case when Milon took over an adult four-year-old bull, carried it through the entire stadium, stabbed it in front of the altar, cooked it on fire and ate it at a time.
It is clear that such legends created by someone’s imagination became the basis for creating the myth that Milon allegedly invented the principle of increasing overload. And it so happened that it was Milon, according to most historians of athleticism, who became the founder of modern training systems with aggravating shells.
Weightlifting competitions in Ancient Greece, unfortunately, were not included in the list of official competitions. But, nevertheless, they were carried out regularly using weights in the form of uncouth rough stones that competing strongmen threw back over their heads with one or two hands. One such stone can be seen in the Museum of the Olympic Games. Its weight is more than 143 kg and has an inscription that states that a certain athlete of the IV century BC. e. Bibock managed to throw him behind the head with one hand. It's hard to believe, but darker less. Such a stone with such an inscription really exists. In ancient vases, one can consider drawings depicting athletes throwing stones and similar to modern weightlifters in that they are also belted with wide belts. In Greece, shot put competitions existed as an unofficial discipline. The appointment of casting a hewn heavy stone served as a training to strengthen the muscular system (see “Records and myths of ancient olympiads” by Wojtech Zamarovsky).
Particularly noteworthy is a tract called “Preserving Health”, one of the oldest instructions on a holistic system for the development of strength muscles. It was written around the 2nd century AD. Roman physician Galen. He proposed a certain system of exercises with weights for the development of muscle strength. The manual was intended not only for warriors and gladiators, but also for ordinary citizens. Hippocrates and his followers also mentioned exercises involving alters.
Let's move on to the Middle Ages. This time is marked by the exceptional influence of Christian ideas, connected in asceticism, denying earthly joys. It is curious that the Christian church has now dramatically changed its views on sports and physical education - from preaching the ideas of humiliating the body to dizzying erecting it in the “temple of God”, when the intensive construction of sports facilities and registration of places of worship in a sports style began. The first theorists of Christian ideas Tertullian, Cyprian of Carthage and John Chrysostom were against sports, referring them to the pagan passions of carnal spectacles. According to Tertullian, one who is reverent in religion should deny running, throwing a disc, and abrupt movements (the word "rabid" was the epithet to such actions). He called it folly. He wrote: "Respecting shyness, you will not flaunt the bodily forces that serve only the vanity of those who use them, and to humiliate those against whom they are directed." This was the quintessence of the position of the Christian church of that time for sports and entertainment, as a result of which the Olympic Games were banned in 344.
The next stage in the development of mankind, feudalism, was marked by a peculiar attitude to physical culture. Despite the theory of the fall and sinfulness of the human body, sprouts of encouraging physical exercises in the form of knightly battles still appear, which demonstrated the striking force necessary for the Crusades. There is little evidence that knights were trained using weight training.
And only at the end of the XIX century, interest in athletic activities manifested itself quite clearly. This revival is closely connected with the name Eugene Sendow (Eugene Sandova), who was born in April 1867 in Kenisberg. He became a superstar of physical excellence at the turn of the century. Sandov had such epithets as “sorcerer poses”, “strongest man”. He performed in the circus, was a fighter and demonstrated such amazing power tricks that he received patronage from several notable especially in Europe. From the King of England, George V. Sandow, received the title of Professor of Physical Development.
His slogan at the dawn of the last century was “Life is a movement”, which formed the basis of his book of the same name. According to his theory, the innate human instinct of health pushes a person to move, and artificial abandonment of movement, a conscious violation of the laws of nature leads to the fact that the organs and systems of a person fail one after another, and then die as a result of diseases, injuries and aging.
Then followed his other book in 1903, published in London in a large edition, called Bodybuilding (translated from English - body building), it laid out the fundamental principle of bodybuilding.
The Sandov system included exercises with dumbbells in the form of guidelines, while the principle of a gradual increase in loads was especially emphasized. Sandov’s teachings played a huge role in the development of bodybuilding methods and modern concepts of strength training techniques.
Then came the system of the French athlete de Bonnet, quite well-known among specialists. It included 17 exercises, after which it was recommended to do relaxing exercises without weights, as well as stretching exercises, which was an undoubted advantage of this system.
The “startling Sando, ” as Florenz Siegfeld called him, who invited him to America as the most powerful person in the world, demonstrated his amazing abilities in Chicago in 1893. Raising on their own hands people, carts and animals. However, his popularity was based not only on the superpower, which Sandov so easily demonstrated, but also on the perfection of his figure. Then everyone knew his anthropometric measurements: with a height of 174 cm, his weight was 90 kg, neck circumference 44 cm, chest 122 cm, waist 80 cm, hip circumference 66 cm, calf 44 cm, hips 107 cm, arms (with strained biceps) - 44 cm.
The tremendous success of the performance of the athlete Sandrov led to an unprecedented surge in interest in various gymnastic apparatus, allowing them to be used at home.
In the wake of commercial interest, soap bubbles appeared in the form of "professors" from athletics. For example, one such “professor” of physical education offered an apparatus that, in fact, was a pile of scrap metal, according to contemporaries. It was something like a dial with an arrow moving along with the effort. It was necessary to move the wooden plank by applying force in order to move several springs. Eyewitnesses who tested it on themselves, explained such a training as an attempt to lift themselves by the laces of their own shoes.
Another funny projectile was the invention of another "professor" in the form of a device consisting of a board with five springs with bolts. It was necessary to stand on the board and press on different springs in order to develop any specific muscles. The accompanying table clearly depicted the "training system." The opinions printed in the then press were extremely negative, many believed that the only benefit from this shell was the manual, which was convenient to stick holes in the wallpaper.
They were attached to a special hook driven into the wall. It was necessary to pull the springs, while taking various poses. Classes continued until the hook flew out of the wall and hit the student on the head.
Sophisticated engineering did not doze off, and here came the Breitbart system, which used a horseshoe and a lever to develop power in the form of an iron rod, at the end of which several metal bars were fixed. Interest in such a building was fueled by the popularity of the indefatigable Sandow, who popularized a healthy lifestyle with new types of sports equipment and through the publication of books and magazines.
It was Sandov who was the first in the field of bodybuilding, promoting the development of the figures of various athletes. The winners were awarded a gold statuette "Eugene Sandow." An unexpected death found Sandov in good shape - he died in 1925 in a car accident. But his work continued, and the competition in the beauty of the athletic body did not stop, but became traditional.
A holy place does not exist empty, and the fame of Sandow was inherited by Bernard MacFadden, who founded the first American journal promoting bodybuilding, "Physical Culture". On his initiative, a sports competition among men was held in America, where El Trelor became the winner. He was awarded a prize in a large sum of money and the title of the most beautifully built man in America.
The first competition for athletes was held in Europe in London, famous for its sporting gentlemen, in 1922. The title of the best bodybuilder was chained in 1922 by Angelo Siciliano,
The popularity of this sport somehow quietly subsided and became more fun until the Second World War shook the Americans, and they realized that, like bodybuilding itself, other sports are very important and simply necessary.
The first Mr. America titles were held in 1939. Those participants still had little resemblance to modern bodybuilders, although over time they began to pay more attention to the proportionality of the athletic body. Training with aggravating shells greatly changed the shape of the figure, and body proportions were increasingly taken into account.
In America, in 1940, several competitions were held, which in many respects already resembled modern ones. They were organized by the US Amateur Athletic Union. John Greamer became the winner with the title "Mr. America." This was an athlete who paid special attention to weight training. Other competitors took over his training system, as a result of which weight training became the main technique for the development of an athletic figure.
And yet in those forties bodybuilding as a sport was not yet so well known. But then a champion appeared, whom the general public drew attention to. They became Stv Reeves. He coveted the titles "Mr. America" and "Mr. Universe." His popularity became well-known after participating in the films "Baghdad Thief" "Hercules" and some others. His image was a strong impetus for the development of one of the most profitable sports and the development of bodybuilding around the world. The simplicity and accessibility of this sport has won bodybuilding wide popularity among the population, which has intensified every year thanks to the images of champions.
In 1945, in the state of New York, in the city of Rochester, a gym was opened by one of the founders of modern bodybuilding, Vic Tenny. You can also recall the names of the first bodybuilders Bob Hoffman, as well as Joe Gold, the owner of the Gold gym, Ben and Joe from Canada, who founded the International Federation of Bodybuilding. These businessmen-athletes opened their enterprises for the production of sports equipment and equipment for training. Subsequently, they had research centers and schools that taught bodybuilding. They have published a lot of special literature, magazines, studies, opened many bodybuilding schools that promote this sport around the world.
In the 1950s and 1950s, different bodybuilding trends began to be determined, based on different training and corresponding body shapes and strengths. In addition to weightlifting, which has become a separate sport, which required lifting the maximum weight in three movements (jerk, push and bench press) that require special performance techniques, two different sports disciplines with different training systems have separated - this is bodybuilding, bodybuilding itself, and powerlifting or powerlifting.
Powerlifting (“power” - “power” and “lifting” - “lifting”) speaks of lifting weights - these are three exercises: bench press, squat, lifting with a barbell on the shoulders and traction with weight. The direction of bodybuilding ("body" - "body" and "building" - "construction") is intended to create a beautiful, harmonious and strong body.
The history of the creation of the International Federation of Bodybuilding is quite complicated. The International Weightlifting Federation (IFB) of 1946, which was created in 1920, began the process of separation into the International Federation of Bodybuilding and the International Weightlifting Federation. But in 1949, the bodybuilding federation again became part of the International Weightlifting Federation, and only in 1968 the bodybuilding federation became completely independent and was called the International Bodybuilding Federation (IFBB), whose headquarters became located in Montreal. The head of the federation (IFBB) in 1946 was Ben Vader. Today, the IFBB organization includes 170 countries of the world.
In addition to the International Bodybuilding Federation (IFBB), there are also rational and global bodybuilding associations. They have their own events in the form of championships, competitions for the title of "Miss and Mr. Olympia." These associations allow participation in the individual competition, and there is no doping control on them, unlike international rules.
In 1966, a competition was organized at the initiative of Joe Vader, at which the best athletes met. The first lucky one was Lary Scott, after which a new countdown in the history of bodybuilding began, because these competitions have become the most prestigious and most popular in the world.
In the 60s, bodybuilding received a new bodybuilding star - Arnold Schwarzenegger, who made an excellent career in both sports, cinema, and the political life of America. He became famous thanks to numerous victories in competitions and his roles in action films. Under President George W. Bush, he served as chairman of the president’s council on physical education and sports. Arnold Schwarzenegger is currently a California Senator.
Back in the 50s, Joe Vader published an article in which there were some predictions. He wrote that the pace of modern life will cause the growth of physical and mental illnesses, and humanity will be forced to recognize the importance of systematic physical exercises that will give strength in the fight against the industrial world. One of the fundamental principles of bodybuilding is the art of recovery, the value of which will steadily increase against the background of an increase in everyday activities. Мир поймет, насколько необходимо развитие мышц, чтобы в нем устоять, и культуризм будет распространяться, как он писал, «со скоростью урагана». Принципы культуризма станут принципами правильного образа жизни: регулярность тренировок, правильное питание и восстановление сил. Джо Вейн предсказывал в этой статье монополистическую роль культуризма в мире спорта, когда культуризм станет необходимой предпосылкой для участия в любом спортивном состязании. Только те, кто будет заниматься культуризмом, будут в состоянии вести полноценную и счастливую жизнь. Заключил автор свою статью убежденными строками о том, что человеческая цивилизация получит определяющую силу в своем развитии в виде культуризма, и это станет средством ее спасения.
В то время подобные высказывания казались всего лишь напыщенным преувеличением даже для самих культуристов, однако сегодня все эти предсказания обрели актуальность.
Согласно исследованиям было установлено, что культуризм является превосходным профилактическим средством против следующих болезней: дефицита кровотока; остеопороза (повышают прочность костей), артритов (улучшают подвижность суставов); психических заболеваний за счет снятия стрессового напряжения; заболеваний сердечнососудистой системы; диабета и импотенции. Спортивные занятия могут предотвратить потерю мышечной массы за счет стимуляции мышц; они способствуют сохранению иммунной системы благодаря устойчивости к стрессам; помогают избавиться от неблагоприятных последствий родов, снижают жировую массу и, тем самым, снижают риск раковых заболеваний.
В наши дни культуризм занимает почетное место среди всех видов спорта. На индустрию культуризма работают исследовательские коллективы и целые отрасли промышленности. Этот вид спорта пропагандируется многочисленными изданиями и публикациями научных изысканий. Во всем мире работает огромное множество специальных спортивных учреждений. Разнообразные красочные шоу с участием культуристов пользуются неизменной популярностью среди широких масс населений.
Уникальность культуризма состоит в том, что он позволяет гармонично и комплексно развивать все тело, а не отдельные группы мышц как в других видах спорта. Из арсенала бодибилдинга спортсмены по другим видам спорта берут множество упражнений для развития тех или иных мышц тела. Еще одним преимуществом этого вида спорта является то, что им могут заниматься люди любого возраста и пола. Этот вид спорта в состоянии решить множество проблем физического, психического и душевного характера. Упражнения культуризма направлены не только на улучшение фигуры, они делают нас физически сильнее и выносливее, уравновешивают состояние духа, придают уверенность и спокойствие, меняют характер и даже взгляды на жизнь.